Graphic designer.

Aspiring author.

Hoarder of books.

X is for X-Height

X was especially hard to come up with a topic for. Hence why I have chosen a small (yet important) part of typography: x-height!

The x-height is the invisible line that most lowercase letters are as tall as. The exceptions to this are b, d, f, h, k, and l. For these letters, the x-height dictates the height of their waistline — the top of the body of the letter.

The reason the x-height is named thusly is because it marks the proper optical height of the lowercase letter x in a typeface. Sometimes, a type designer may make rounded letters — such as c, o, and e — slightly taller than the x-height to make up for any optical illusion that causes the letters to not look the same height.

Other important guidelines that dictate the height and length of letters are the ascender line, cap height, baseline, and the descender line.


I hope you’ve found this small glimpse into type helpful!

W is for the Works-Every-Time Layout

The Works-Every-Time Layout works because it is set up for people who read from left to right and top to bottom. It is a great technique for creating a functional and quick design.

Here are the parts that make up the Works-Every-Time Layout:

Create generous margins around the outside edge of your design.


Depending on the size and function of your design, create columns. Make sure these columns also have margins between them!


Position the visual at the top of the layout. This will naturally capture the audience’s eye first.


If you need a caption for your visual, place it below the visual.


The headline should come next and be big! After the visual, it should be next to catch the audience’s eye.


Next, place your copy. This is where having multiple columns becomes important.


Tags should be placed in the lower right corner. Tags are things such as a logo, slogan, URL, phone number, etc.

V is for Design Violations

There are some things you just shouldn’t do, well, most of the time.

Here are some design violations!
Centring Everything

Very rarely is this acceptable.

Too Many Fonts

Two is usually enough.

Missing Margins

Be consistent and be generous with margins.

Warped Photos

Crop don’t warp!

4 Corners

Visual balance is important but it doesn’t mean placing the same thing in each corner.

Trapped Negative Space

Make sure the negative space can reach the outer edges of the design.

Busy Backgrounds

Remember MySpace? When you would go to a friend’s page and the background was so busy (or even made up of repeated GIF’s) that you couldn’t read anything? Don’t do that.

Widows And Orphans

I explain those here.

Justified Rivers

And I explain those here!

Don’t get me wrong, sometimes you can use these to great effect. But usually they are no-no’s!

Copyright © 2014-2017 Leetah Begallie. Designed by Coded Pixel.